Current Thoracic Surgery 2016 , Vol 1 , Issue 1
Chest wall deformities and coincidence of additional anomalies, screening results of the 25.000 Turkish children with the review of the literature
Mahmut Tokur1, Şevki Mustafa Demiröz2,Muhammet Sayan1,Naime Tokur3,Hüseyin Arpağ4
1Department of Thoracic Surgery, School of Medicine, Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam University, Kahramanmaraş, Turkey
2Department of Thoracic Surgery, Atatürk Chest Diseases and Thoracic Surgery Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey
3Department of Pediatrics, Necip Fazıl City Hospital, Kahramanmaraş, Turkey
4Department of Pulmonary Medicine, School of Medicine, Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam University, Kahramanmaraş, Turkey
DOI : 10.26663/cts.2016.0005 Viewed : 3194 - Downloaded : 733 Background: The main subtypes of chest wall deformities are pectus excavatum (PE) and pectus carinatum (PC). Although these are not life threatening diseases, some functional or physico-social disabilities due to the abnormal chest wall structure require treatment. The main stem of the treatment is surgical correction. Since the beginning of the 20th century various surgical techniques were introduced. In the last few decades some minimally invasive surgical techniques were also described. In the English literature many reports suggest that the vast majority of these abnormalities are PE. But in most of the reports patient groups consist of hospital admissions. The real frequency of this group of disease is controversial.

Materials and Methods: In this report, a wide field study was designed to find the real frequency of the chest wall diseases. Total of 25117 children between 6-11 years of age were visited in the elementary schools of Kahramanmaraş. The team members were a thoracic surgeon, a pulmonologist and a pediatrician.

Results: A careful physical examination revealed that a total of 255 patients had different degrees of chest wall deformity. We found that PC (90.58%) was the most frequent type of deformity in contrast with the previous reports suggesting PE as the most frequent type. In our results only 5.49% of the patients had PE and 3.93% of the patients had mixed type PE+PC. The most frequent ECG abnormality seen in 49 cases (19% of cases with deformity) was a negative T wave on V1 derivation and a biphasic T wave configuration on V1-V2 derivations. 8 patients (3.13%) had concomitant scoliosis and 6 patients (%2.35) had different degrees of cardiomegaly.

Conclusions: The real frequency of chest wall deformities is an enigma. When PE patients themselves or their family notice the abnormality, they may consider it as a big health problem and admit to a healthcare unit. But in contrast, PC patients mostly do not care about this disorder until adolescence, so admission rate is less then PE. We suggest that the real frequency of the chest wall deformities may be found only by widespread field studies. Moreover, we found more accompanying cardiac disorders in PC group, and this type of screening may allow early diagnosis of some cardiac diseases. Keywords : Chest wall deformity; pectus carinatum; pectus excavatum